Since the adoption of Islamization as an official policy during the Mahathir administration, Islamists of variegated persuasions have participated in the country’s political process in numerous ways, whether in government, in opposition or in civil society. Despite persistent attempts by the state at homogenizing Islam in both faith and practice, the Islamist spectrum in Malaysia continues to exhibit great diversity, each segment trying in various ways to influence the state. By the time Najib Razak came into power in 2009, the stage had been set for a new form of contestation reflecting fault lines over the proper role of Islam in the public sphere.